Infobox gold

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Gold, 79Au
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PronunciationTemplate:Infobox element/pronunciation
AllotropesTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-allotropes
Appearancemetallic yellow
Mass numberTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-most-stable-isotope
Gold in the periodic table
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Atomic number (Z)79
GroupTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-group
PeriodTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-period
BlockTemplate:Infobox element/block format
Electron configurationTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-electron-configuration
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Physical properties
Phase at STPTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-phase
Melting point1337.33 K ​(1064.18 °C, ​1947.52 °F)
Boiling point3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Density (near r.t.)19.3 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)17.31 g/cm3
Heat of fusion12.55 kJ/mol
[[Enthalpy of vaporization|Heat of Template:Engvar]]342 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.418 J/(mol·K)
[[Vapor pressure|Template:Engvar pressure]]
Atomic properties
Oxidation statesTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-oxidation-state
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.54
[[Ionization energy|Template:Engvar energies]]
  • 1st: 890.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1980 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 144 pm
Covalent radius136±6 pm
Van der Waals radius166 pm
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Other properties
Natural occurrenceTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-occurrence
Crystal structureTemplate:Infobox element/crystal structure
Speed of sound thin rod2030 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion14.2 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity318 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity22.14 nΩ⋅m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[1]
Molar magnetic susceptibility−28.0×10−6 cm3/mol (at 296 K)[2]
Tensile strength120 MPa
Young's modulus79 GPa
Shear modulus27 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa[3]
Poisson ratio0.4
Mohs hardness2.5
Vickers hardness188–216 MPa
Brinell hardness188–245 MPa
CAS Number7440-57-5
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DiscoveryIn the Middle East (before 6000 BCE)
SymbolTemplate:Infobox element/symbol-to-symbol-etymology
Main isotopes of gold
Template:infobox gold isotopes does not exist
| references

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